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Arrhythmia spectrum and outcome in children with myocarditis


Department of Cardiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zeeshan Mumtaz
Department of Cardiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.apc_207_20

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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 366-371

 

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Introduction : Myocarditis remains an under-diagnosed entity among children. We evaluated the spectrum of electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and arrhythmias in children with myocarditis. Methods : A single-center prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 18 months at a public university hospital, which included all cases with myocarditis from the ages of 1 month to 12 years. Myocarditis was diagnosed according to standard criteria. Arrhythmias were detected by 12-lead ECG or by multiparameter monitors. Results : There were 63 children with myocarditis. Sinus tachycardia remained the most important ECG finding (61, 96.8%) followed by ST-T changes (30, 47.6%), low voltage QRS complexes (23, 36.5%), and premature complexes (11, 17.4%). Sustained arrhythmias were seen in 14/63 (22.2%) of the children (Group A), while the remaining 49 patients were designated as Group B. There were 11 (17.5%) cases with sustained tachyarrhythmias, comprising 5 with supraventricular tachycardia, 4 with ventricular tachycardia, and 2 with atrial flutter/fibrillation. Bradyarrhythmias were seen in 3 patients, including 2 children with atrioventricular block and 1 with severe sinus bradycardia. A longer hospital stay of 18.5 (4.75) days vs. 13 (4) days, P = 0.001), and more ST-T changes [12 (85.7%) vs. 18 (36.73%), P = 0.003] were seen in Group A. Multivariate regression analysis found only the presence of ST-T changes as predictors for arrhythmia. Conclusions : A variety of arrhythmias and other ECG changes were commonly seen in children with myocarditis. Sustained arrhythmias were seen in one-fifth of the patients, being associated with ST-T changes and a longer hospital stay.






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Department of Cardiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zeeshan Mumtaz
Department of Cardiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.apc_207_20

Rights and Permissions

Introduction : Myocarditis remains an under-diagnosed entity among children. We evaluated the spectrum of electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and arrhythmias in children with myocarditis. Methods : A single-center prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 18 months at a public university hospital, which included all cases with myocarditis from the ages of 1 month to 12 years. Myocarditis was diagnosed according to standard criteria. Arrhythmias were detected by 12-lead ECG or by multiparameter monitors. Results : There were 63 children with myocarditis. Sinus tachycardia remained the most important ECG finding (61, 96.8%) followed by ST-T changes (30, 47.6%), low voltage QRS complexes (23, 36.5%), and premature complexes (11, 17.4%). Sustained arrhythmias were seen in 14/63 (22.2%) of the children (Group A), while the remaining 49 patients were designated as Group B. There were 11 (17.5%) cases with sustained tachyarrhythmias, comprising 5 with supraventricular tachycardia, 4 with ventricular tachycardia, and 2 with atrial flutter/fibrillation. Bradyarrhythmias were seen in 3 patients, including 2 children with atrioventricular block and 1 with severe sinus bradycardia. A longer hospital stay of 18.5 (4.75) days vs. 13 (4) days, P = 0.001), and more ST-T changes [12 (85.7%) vs. 18 (36.73%), P = 0.003] were seen in Group A. Multivariate regression analysis found only the presence of ST-T changes as predictors for arrhythmia. Conclusions : A variety of arrhythmias and other ECG changes were commonly seen in children with myocarditis. Sustained arrhythmias were seen in one-fifth of the patients, being associated with ST-T changes and a longer hospital stay.






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