Atul Kaushik1, Aditya Kapoor2, Preeti Dabadghao3, Roopali Khanna2, Sudeep Kumar2, Naveen Garg2, Satyendra Tewari2, Pravin K Goel2, Archana Sinha4
1 Department of Cardiology, AIIMS, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Cardiology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Dietetics, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Background: Subtle structural and functional changes may precede the onset of overt global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Data pertaining to tissue velocity imaging (TVI)and strain imaging to assess regional myocardial function and flow mediated vasodilatation are limited in young patients with diabetes.
Materials: Conventional echocardiography, TVI parameters along with strain (S), and strain rate (SR) were measured in 50 young diabetics (15.16 ± 2.95 years, mean HBA1c 8.15 ± 1.37 g %) and 25 controls (15.60 ± 2.51 years). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrate--mediated dilatation (NMD), and carotid intima–media thickness were also assessed.
Results: Conventional echocardiography parameters were similar in patients and controls; however, deceleration time of the mitral inflow velocity (early deceleration time) was significantly shorter in patients when compared with controls (149.06 ± 31.66 vs. 184.56 ± 19.27 ms, P =0.001). Patients had lower strain values at the basal lateral LV (21.39 ± 4.12 vs. 23.78 ± 2.02; P =0.001), mid-lateral LV (21.43 ± 4.27 vs. 23.17 ± 1.92 P =0.02), basal septum (20.59 ± 5.28 vs. 22.91 ± 2.00; P = 0.01), and midseptum (22.06 ± 4.75 vs. 24.10 ± 1.99; P = 0.01) as compared to controls. SR at the basal and midsegments of the lateral LV wall and at the basal septum was also significantly lower in diabetic patients. Diabetic children also had endothelial dysfunction with significantly lower FMD (8.36 ± 4.27 vs. 10.57 ± 4.12, P = 0.04).
Conclusions: LV strain indices and flow--mediated dilatation are impaired in asymptomatic children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus despite absence of overt heart failure and normal ejection fraction. Early detection of subclinical regional myocardial dysfunction by deformation analysis including strain and strain rate may be useful in the asymptomatic diabetic population.
Dr. Aditya Kapoor
Department of Cardiology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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