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Fetal cardiac arrhythmias: Current evidence


Department of Obstetrics, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Edward Araujo Júnior
Rua Belchior De Azevedo, 156 Apto. 111 Torre Vitoria, São Paulo
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_134_17

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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 148-163

 

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This article reviews important features for improving the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias by ultrasound in prenatal cardiac screening and echocardiography. Transient fetal arrhythmias are more common than persistent fetal arrhythmias. However, persistent severe bradycardia and sustained tachycardia may cause fetal hydrops, preterm delivery, and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, the diagnosis of these arrhythmias during the routine obstetric ultrasound, before the progression to hydrops, is crucial and represents a challenge that involves a team of specialists and subspecialists on fetal ultrasonography. The images in this review highlight normal cardiac rhythms as well as pathologic cases consistent with premature atrial and ventricular contractions, heart block, supraventricular tachycardia (VT), atrial flutter, and VT. In this review, the details of a variety of arrhythmias in fetuses were provided by M-mode and Doppler ultrasound/echocardiography with high-quality imaging, enhancing diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, an update on the intrauterine management and treatment of many arrhythmias is provided, focusing on improving outcomes to enable planned delivery and perinatal management.






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Department of Obstetrics, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Edward Araujo Júnior
Rua Belchior De Azevedo, 156 Apto. 111 Torre Vitoria, São Paulo
Brazil
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_134_17

Rights and Permissions

This article reviews important features for improving the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias by ultrasound in prenatal cardiac screening and echocardiography. Transient fetal arrhythmias are more common than persistent fetal arrhythmias. However, persistent severe bradycardia and sustained tachycardia may cause fetal hydrops, preterm delivery, and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, the diagnosis of these arrhythmias during the routine obstetric ultrasound, before the progression to hydrops, is crucial and represents a challenge that involves a team of specialists and subspecialists on fetal ultrasonography. The images in this review highlight normal cardiac rhythms as well as pathologic cases consistent with premature atrial and ventricular contractions, heart block, supraventricular tachycardia (VT), atrial flutter, and VT. In this review, the details of a variety of arrhythmias in fetuses were provided by M-mode and Doppler ultrasound/echocardiography with high-quality imaging, enhancing diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, an update on the intrauterine management and treatment of many arrhythmias is provided, focusing on improving outcomes to enable planned delivery and perinatal management.






[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*


        
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